Principles of Intellectual Property 


1.         Conceptual Basis for Intellectual Property Protection



Concept of Originality 

                        Originality in Literary Works

V.Errabhadrarao v. B.N.Sharma..

Originality in Databases

Burlington Home Shopping Pvt. Ltd v. Rajnish Chibber

Originality in Case Reports

Eastern Book Company v. Navin J. Desai

Idea/Expression Dichotomy 

R.G. Anand v. Delux Films

Originality in Computer Program


Concept of Novelty, Inventive Step and Utility in Patents

Lallubhai Chakkubhai v. Chiman Lal Chunilal

Test of Inventive step

Bishwanath Prasad Radhey Shyam v. Hindustan Metal Industries

Test of Inventive Step in Pharmaceuticals

Cadilla Pharmaceuticals Ltd.v. Instacare Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.


Concept of Originality or Novelty in Design

            Test of Originality

Gammeter v. Controller of Patents & Designs

  1. The Pilot Pen Co. v. The Gujarat Industrie.

Test of Novelty

Hello Mineral Water Pvt. Ltd v. Thermoking California Pure

Glaxo Smithkline Consumer Health Care GmbH & Co. Kg v. Anchor Health & Beautycare Pvt. Ltd.


Concept of Distinctiveness in Trade and Service Marks

                        Test of distinctiveness

National Bell Co v. Metal   Goods Mfg. Co (P) Ltd.

Test of Deception and Confusion

Amrithdhara Phrmacy v. Satya Deo Gupta

Test of acquired distinctiveness

Kavi Raj Pandit Durga Dutt Sharma v. Navaratna Pharma


2.         Subject-matter of Intellectual Property Protection    



Works Protected Under Copyright Law (Including Performances)

            Literary works

Agarwala Publishing House, Khurja v. Board of High School and Intermediate Education U. P. Allahabad

Artistic Work

Ananda Expanded Italics., In re.

Dramatic Work

Fortune Films International v. Dev Anand

 Musical Work

Gramaphone Co. v. Super Cassette Industries Ltd.

Computer Programme

Patentable Inventions       

      Pharmaceutical Inventions          

Novartis AG v. Union of India and others

Inventions relating to Living Organism

Dimminaco A.G. v. Controller of Patents Designs and Ors.

Protection of Computer programme

Registrable marks

ITC Ltd. v. Registrar of Trademarks

Well-known Marks  

N.R. Dongre v. Whirlpool Corporation

          Well-Known marks – Use in India

Jolen Inc., v. Shoban Lal


3.         Rights of Owners of Intellectual Property                      




Rights under the Copyright Law

Economic Rights of Author – Right of Reproduction

                        Cinematograph Film

Star India Private Limited v. Leo Burnett (India) Private Limited

      Artistic work

Escort Construction Corporation v. Action Construction,

Communication to public

Garware Plastic v. Telelink

New Technology and Right of Communication to public

Video Master v. Nishi Productions


Right to Prohibit Importation

Penguin Books v. India Book Distribution

Moral Rights             

Manubhandari v. Kalavikas,

Amarnath Sehgal v. Union of India,

Moral Rights of Performer

Neha Bhasin v. Anand Raj Anand & another 

Co-existence of rights of different works

Indian Performing Rights Society v. Eastern India Motion Pictures Association

Related Rights under Copyright

Economic Rights of Performer  

Fortune Films International v. Dev Anand

Economic Rights of Broadcasting Organizations 

Asia Industrial Technology, Pvt. Ltd. v. Ambience Space Sellers Ltd

                   Rights under Patent Law


4.         Ownership and Transfer of Intellectual Property Rights

Authorship and Ownership of Copyright

Joint author

Najma Heptulla v. Messrs. Orient Longman Limited,

The True and First Inventor and the Patentee

     Concept of Inventor

 V.B. Mohammed Ibrahim v. Alfred Schafranek & Ors.,

Intellectual Property Rights during Employment

    Author and Employer

V. T. Thomas v. Malayala Manorama Co. Ltd.

Contract of employment and Contract for employment

Indian Performing Rights Society v. Eastern India Motion Pictures Association

Transfer of Intellectual Property


Difference between assignment and licensing

Gramophone Company of India Ltd. v. Shanti Films Corporation

Assignment of Future Rights

Raj Video Vision v. K. Mohanakrishnan



Trafficking in Trade Marks

Cycle Corporation of India Ltd v. T. I. Raleigh Industries Pvt. Ltd

Trafficking – Registration of Mark without intention to use

Vishnudas Trading v. Vazir Sultan Tobacco Co. Ltd


5.  Public Interest and Intellectual Property                  43


Term of Protection of Copyright

Limitation and Exceptions


Civic Chandran v. Ammini Amma



Statutory and Compulsory Licence of IPR


       Compulsory Licence 

Super Cassettes Industries Ltd v. Entertainment Network (India) Ltd.  Phonographic Performance Ltd. v. Music Broadcast (P) Ltd

Statutory Licence

Gramophone Co. of India Ltd. v. Super Cassette Industries Ltd.

      Compulsory Licence under Patent


6.  Infringement of Intellectual Property and Passing off      




                        R.G.Anand v. Deluxe Films

Zee Telefilms Ltd. v. Sundial Communications Pvt. Ltd.



                        F.H. & B. Corporation etc., v. Unichem Laboratories & Others



                        Durga Dutt Sharma v. Navaratna Pharma

Comparative advertisement

Pepsi Co Inc. v. Hindusthan Coca Cola and Others


Britannia Industries v. Sara Lee Bakery


Passing off

Cadila Health Care Ltd. v. Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd



Daimler Benz v.  Hybo Hindusthan


Functional Design and Passing off

Smithkline Beecham PLC. v. Hindustan Lever Ltd


Character merchandising

Star India Pvt. Ltd. v. Leo Burnett (India) Pvt. Ltd


Ambush Marketing

ICC Development (International) Ltd. v. Arvee Enterprises


Domain Names

Yahoo! Inc. v. Akash Arora

Online India Capital Co. Pvt. Ltd. v. Dimensions Corporate


Geographical Indication

The Scotch Whisky Associaton v. Parava Sahakar Shakar Karkhana Ltd



7.         Enforcement of Intellectual Property                           


Civil Remedies



Anton Piller Orders

Bucyrus Europe Ltd. v.  Vulcan Industries Engineering Co. Ltd

Damages and Accounts of Profit

Pillalamarri Lakshmikantham v. Ramakrishna Pictures

 Criminal Remedies

Sheo Ratan Upadhya v. Gopal Chandra Nepali

Siyaram Silk Mills Ltd. v. State

                   Administrative Remedies

Gramophone Co. of India Ltd. v. Birendra Bahadur Pande  



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